Dufferin Stone

Architectural Masonry / Dufferin Stone

Dufferin Stone: Technical Notes

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** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Oldcastle Architectural Product Group; concrete stone masonry veneer.


This section is based on the products of Oldcastle Architectural Product Group, which is located at:

  375 Northridge Road, Suite 250

  Atlanta, Georgia 30350

  Toll Free Tel: (800) 899-8455

  Direct Tel: (770) 804- 3363

  Fax: (770) 804-3369

  Email: sales@oldcatleapg.com

  Web: http://www.oldcastleapg.com.

  Web: http://www.dufferinstone.com.

  {click Here} for additional information.


Dufferin Stone is an innovative new building material designed by Oldcastle APG, a European blue-chip company with corporate headquarters in Dublin, Ireland. Avalon will be the first residential development in the United States to offer this distinctive new product as a standard building material. Dufferin Stone is a masonry veneer installed with the same construction methods used to lay clay brick; however, the size and shape of the stones allow homeowners to specify random ashlar patterns that avoid the commercial look of traditional masonry.

In addition to the pattern flexibility, the stones are produced with natural textures and superior color-blends to create an old-world appearance that brings distinction to your home. These stones are tested to endure extreme conditions of heat, cold, de-icing salts and acid rain without fading, and will protect your home against the elements with the soundness of concrete. With Dufferin Stone as an option for all elevations, Avalon residents will enjoy the look and feel of natural stone with the durability and quality-control of today's manufacturing techniques. Durable and beautiful this stone veneer will add substantial value to your home that you will be able to enjoy for years to come.








** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Delete items below not required.


A.             Concrete stone masonry units.


B.             Special shapes.


C.             Mortar for unit masonry.


D.             Reinforcement, anchorages, and accessories.



** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Delete any sections below not relevant to this project; add others as required.


A.             Section 04200 - Unit Masonry:  Concrete masonry block, anchors, and accessories for veneer back-up construction.


B.             Section 05400 - Cold Formed Metal Framing: Steel stud and sheathing for veneer back-up construction.


C.             Section 06100 - Rough carpentry: Wood stud and sheathing for veneer back-up construction.


D.             Section 07110 - Dampproofing:  Cavity dampproofing of masonry back-up.


E.             Section 07270 - Air and Moisture Barriers.


F.              Section 07600 - Flashing and Sheet Metal Trim: Through wall and cavity flashing.


G.             Section 07900 - Joint Sealants: Control joints and seals at adjacent materials.


1.3          REFERENCES


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Delete references from the list below that are not actually required by the text of the edited section.

A.             ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 - Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures.


B.             ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 - Specifications for Masonry Structures and Commentaries.


C.             ASTM A 36 - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel.


D.             ASTM A 153 - Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware.


E.             ASTM A 666 - Standard Specification for Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar


F.              ASTM C-55 - Standard Specification for Concrete Brick.


G.             ASTM C 144 - Standard Specification for Aggregate for Masonry Mortar.


H.             ASTM C 150 - Standard Specification for Portland Cement.


I.                ASTM C 207 - Standard Specification for Hydrated Lime for Masonry Purposes.


J.               ASTM C 270 - Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry.


K.             ASTM C 387 - Standard Specification for Packaged, Dry, Combined Materials for Mortar and Concrete.


L.              ASTM C 568 - Standard Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone.


M.            ASTM E 514 - Test method for Water Penetration and Leakage Through Masonry.


N.             IMIAC - International Masonry Industry All-Weather Council:  Recommended Practices and Guide Specification for Hot and Cold Weather Masonry Construction.


O.             NCMA - National Concrete Masonry Association.


1.4          SUBMITTALS


A.             Submit under provisions of Section 01300.


B.             Product Data:  Manufacturer's data sheets on each product to be used, including:

1.              Test Reports:  Submit test reports from an independent testing agency indicating compliance with referenced standards.

2.              Storage and handling requirements and recommendations.

3.              Installation methods.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Delete selection samples if colors have already been selected.

C.             Selection Samples:  For each finish product specified, two complete sets of representative colors selections representing manufacturer's full range of representative colors and textures.


D.             Verification Samples:  For each product specified, two full size samples representing actual product, colors and textures.




A.             Perform Work in accordance with applicable requirements of governing authorities and codes. Comply with applicable requirements for installation of masonry work per ACI 530 and ACI 530.1.


B.             Single Source Responsibility for Masonry Units:  Obtain all exposed masonry units of uniform texture and color, or a uniform blend within ranges accepted from a single manufacturer.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Include a mock-up if the project size and/or quality warrant taking such a precaution.  The following is one example of how a mock-up on a large project might be specified.  When deciding on the extent of the mock-up, consider all the major different types of work on the project.

C.             Mock-Up:  Provide a mock-up for evaluation of product and application workmanship.

1.              Install in area and of size designated by Architect.

a.              Construct mockup to illustrate backup wall, exterior sheathing, air barrier, cavity wall, connectors, weep holes, cavity vents, and through wall flashing.

b.              Construct mockup panel 48 inches (1219 mm) by 48 inches (1219 mm) to illustrate stone masonry units, coursing, anchorage, mortar joints and color, pattern of finished wall and control joints.

c.              Cleaning materials to be used on final masonry work shall be used on the Mock-up to verify compatibility with masonry units.

2.              Do not proceed with work until finish color, texture, pattern, joint sizes, and installation workmanship are approved by Architect.

3.              Correct mock-up area as required to produce acceptable work.

4.              Mock-up may be incorporated into final construction upon Architect's approval.




A.             Installer Qualifications: Company specializing in installing products of this Section with minimum 10 years documented experience.


B.             Design anchors under direct supervision of Professional Engineer experienced in design of this Work and licensed at the location of the work.




A.             Deliver mortar materials in original unbroken, undamaged packages with manufacturers labels intact and visible. Store off the ground and undercover until used on the work.


B.             Store or pile sand on a plank platform and protect from dirt and rubbish. Store mortar materials and sand in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or contamination by foreign materials.


C.             Deliver masonry units to the site banded on pallets with protective pallet covers. Prevent damage to units.


D.             Lift skids with proper and sufficiently long slings or forks with protection to prevent damage to units.  Protect edges and corners.


E.             Store masonry units in a manner designed to prevent damage and staining of units Single stack pallets on level ground with waterproof covering to protect from inclement weather.


F.              Do not use calcium-chloride or de-icing salts to remove ice from masonry surfaces.




A.             Maintain environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, and ventilation) within limits recommended by manufacturer for optimum results. 

1.              Maintain materials and surrounding air to minimum 50 degrees F (10 degrees C) prior to, during, and 48 hours after completion of masonry work.

2.              Cold Weather Protection:  When outside air is below 40 degrees F (4.5 degrees C), pre-condition materials and finish work per requirements of IMIAC.

3.              Hot Weather Protection:  Protect masonry from direct exposure to wind and sun when erected in ambient air temperature of 99 degrees F (37 degrees C) in shade with relative humidity less than 50 percent per requirements of IMIAC.


B.             Coordination:  Coordinate with other Work that is integrated with or built-in masonry.  Coordinate masonry flashing with flashing specified elsewhere to insure a complete, watertight flashing system to shed water to building exterior.





2.1          MANUFACTURERS


A.             Acceptable Manufacturer:  Oldcastle Architectural Companies; 375 Northridge Road, Suite 250, Atlanta, Georgia 30350.  ASD. Tel: (770) 804- 3363.  Fax: (770) 804-3369.  Email: sales@oldcatleapg.com.  Web: http://www.dufferinstone.com.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Delete one of the following two paragraphs; coordinate with requirements of Division 1 section on product options and substitutions.

B.             Substitutions:  Not permitted.


C.             Requests for substitutions will be considered in accordance with provisions of Section 01600.


2.2          PRODUCTS


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Dufferin Stone has a range of colors, patterns and special shapes available. Consult with manufacturer for assistance if required to determine the pattern and color combinations required.

A.             Concrete Stone Masonry Veneer Units: Dufferin Stone Masonry Units as manufactured and distributed by Oldcastle Architectural Group.

1.              Solid units with physical dimensions and characteristics complying with ASTM C 55 and the physical properties of ASTM C 568, Class II.

2.              Wall assembly capable of complying  with ASTM E 514, Class E.

3.              Special shapes and sizes, including 45 degree angle stone and stone surround shapes, as indicated on the drawings for the pattern specified.

4.              Color: Minimum of three variegated color blending as selected from manufacturers standard selections.

5.              Size: 4 inches (102 mm) in width nominal with face dimensions selected from a minimum of 15 face sizes to match ashlar pattern as indicated on Drawings or established in the approved mock-up.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Coordinate with design requirements and the Drawings. Insert  sizes and types required. Delete paragraphs not required.

B.             Anchors: Provide anchors to suit design requirements for material and installation requirements.

1.              Wall Ties: Formed steel wire, hot dip galvanized to ASTM A 153, B2 finish:

a.               ______ inches (______ mm) thick.

b.              Adjustable type.

c.              Eye and pintle type.

2.              Anchors and Supports:

a.              Stainless steel, ASTM A 666, Type 304.

b.              Steel, ASTM A 36, galvanized after fabrication to ASTM A 153, B2 finish.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Mortar can be a site batched or a prepared pre-mix type. Select paragraph 1, 2 and 3 for site batched type,  or paragraph 4 for premix type and/or paragraph 5 for premix colored type. Delete paragraph(s) for types not required. 

C.             Mortar Materials:

1.              Portland Cement: to ASTM C150, Type I.

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for color required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

a.              Gray.

b.              White.

c.              Color as selected.

2.              Hydrated Lime: to ASTM C 207:

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for type required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

a.              Type S.

b.              Type N.

3.              Mortar Aggregate: to ASTM C 144, standard masonry type; clean, dry, protected against dampness, freezing, and foreign matter.

4.              Premix Mortar: ASTM C 387:

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for color required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

a.              Gray.

b.              White.

c.              Color as selected.

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for type required. Delete paragraph not required. 

d.              Type S.

e.              Type N.

5.              Premix Colored Mortar: ASTM C 978:

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for color required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

a.              Color ______.

b.              Color as selected.

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for type required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

c.              Type S.

d.              Type N.

6.              Water: Potable, clean and free of deleterious amounts of acids, alkalis or organic materials.

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Include the following paragraphs if mortar color and/or integral water repellent is required. Do not use mortar color with premix colored mortar. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

7.              Mortar Color: Mineral oxide pigment color as selected.

8.              Integral Water Repellent: shall be factory blended granular or liquid type as approved by the Architect.


2.3          ACCESSORIES


A.             Flashing: Provide flashing as specified in Section 07600.


B.             Weeps: Preformed plastic insect resistant vents with sloping louvers.


C.             Cavity Vents: Molded polyvinyl chloride insect resistant grilles.


2.4          MORTAR MIX


A.             Proportion mortar for masonry in accordance with ASTM C270:

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Select paragraph for type mortar required. Delete paragraph(s) not required. 

1.              Type M.

2.              Type S.

3.              Type N.


B.             Mix mortar in accordance with ASTM C270 and in quantities require for immediate use.

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER ** Edit the following paragraph as required. Delete if not required. 

1.              Add color and water repellents in accordance with the manufacturers printed instructions.

2.              Re-temper mortar only within two hours of mixing





3.1          EXAMINATION


A.             Verify field conditions are acceptable and ready to receive work.


B.             Verify that built-in items are in proper location and ready for roughing into masonry work.


C.             If back-up wall construction is the responsibility of another installer, notify Architect of unsatisfactory preparation before proceeding.


3.2          PREPARATION


A.             Protect adjacent work areas and finish surfaces from damage during product installation.


B.             Provide for temporary bracing as required during construction.


3.3          INSTALLATION


A.             General: Install in accordance with ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and the manufacturer's instructions.


B.             Coursings: Install masonry construction anchored solidly to backing, properly aligned, plumb, and true in required layout, making straight, level courses, unless otherwise indicated.

1.              Place varying size of stones to provide a random Ashlar pattern as approved.

2.              Maintain mortar joint thickness of 3/8 inch (10 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm) either horizontally or vertically.

3.              Tool joints as follows:

** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Select joint type required. Delete types not required. Note that tooled joints are more water resistant than recessed joints.

a.              Flush.

b.              Concave.

c.              Recessed.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Coordinate control joint locations with design requirements and the Drawings. 

C.             Placing and Bonding: Lay masonry in full bed of mortar with full head joints, properly jointed with other work.  Buttering corners of joints, deep or excessive furrowing of mortar joints is not permitted.

1.              Back-bevel bed joints to remove excess mortar droppings in cavity as work progresses.

2.              Fully bond intersections and external corners.

3.              Isolate masonry partitions from vertical structural framing members with a control joint as indicated.

4.              Provide for expansion and control joints as indicated on the Drawings.

5.              Do not adjust masonry units after placing.  Where resetting of masonry is required, remove, clean units and reset in new mortar.

6.              Leave joints under shelf angles and elsewhere as indicated or required open to receive sealant.


** NOTE TO SPECIFIER **  Coordinate with project design requirements and the Drawings. Delete backing wall constructions not required. 

D.             Anchors: Provide anchors to suit design requirements indicated or required.

1.              Masonry backing: Wire anchors or adjustable anchors. Minimum spacing 18 inches (450 mm) horizontally and 32 inches (800 mm) vertically.

2.              Steel stud backing: Adjustable anchors attached with corrosion-resistant screws having a minimum nominal shank diameter of 0.19 inch (4.8 mm). Minimum spacing 18 inches (450 mm) horizontally and 32 inches (800 mm) vertically.

3.              Wood stud backing: Corrugated sheet metal anchors, wire anchors or adjustable anchors.  Attach to backing with a corrosion-resistant 8d common nail, or a fastener with equivalent or greater pullout strength. Minimum spacing 18 inches (450 mm) horizontally and 32 inches (800 mm) vertically.

4.              Increase quantity of wall ties around perimeter of openings, at wall terminations and corners, and along parapet walls, placed within 8 inches (203 mm) of openings and edges of masonry.


E.             Build-in items furnished by other trades, and leave accurate openings necessary for subsequent installation of other Work to maintain required strength and appearance of masonry construction.

1.              Fill solidly with mortar around conduit and sleeves passing through masonry Work.

2.              Build-in loose steel angle lintels, providing bearing indicated in full mortar bed.


F.              Prevent grout, mortar, and soil from staining face of masonry.  Remove grout and mortar from these surfaces immediately.


G.             Protect base of masonry walls from rain splashed mud and mortar splatters.


H.             Install weep holes in veneer masonry at maximum 24 inches (610 mm) on center horizontally above through-wall flashing, above shelf angles, lintels, bottom of walls, and elsewhere as indicated on Drawings.


I.                Do not permit mortar to drop or accumulate into cavity air space or to plug weeps.


J.               Install cavity vents a maximum 24 inches (610 mm) on center horizontally at top of each cavity space, below shelf angles and elsewhere as indicated on the Drawings.


K.             Install through-wall flashing over exterior windows, relieving angles, doors, tops of walls, at the inside base of cavity walls, and under sills.  Extend ends of sill flashing beyond jamb line and turn up into wall to create an end dam to divert moisture toward the wall face. Extend flashing over veneer, turn up minimum 8 inches (200 mm) and bed into mortar joint of masonry, or seal to sheathing.


3.4          TOLERANCES


A.             In accordance with ACI 530.1 ASCE6/TMS602


B.             Maximum Variation of Joint Thickness: Plus minus 1/8 inch (3 mm).


C.             Maximum Offset From Adjacent Unit: 1/8 inch (3 mm).


3.5          CLEANING


A.             Keep walls clean daily during installation using brushes or rags.  Do not allow excess mortar lumps or smears to harden on the finished surfaces.


B.             After mortar is thoroughly set and cured, clean masonry as per methods recommended by NCMA and as follows:

1.              Test cleaning methods on sample wall panel; leave 1/2 panel uncleaned for comparison purposed.  Obtain Architect's approval of sample cleaning before proceeding with cleaning of masonry.

2.              Remove large mortar particles by hand with wooden paddles and non-metallic scrapers or chisels

3.              Clean concrete stone masonry to comply with masonry manufacturer's directions and applicable NCMA "Tek" bulletins.


C.             Replace defective mortar as required to match adjacent work.


3.6          PROTECTION


A.             Remove temporary coverings and protection of adjacent work areas. Repair or replace damaged installed products.


B.             Protect installed products until completion of project.


C.             Protect concrete stone from contact with mortar, soil, and other materials capable of staining or discoloring the finished product.


D.             Touch-up, repair or replace damaged products before Substantial Completion.


E.             Remove construction debris from project site and legally dispose of debris.